Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS)
|A sprayer practices his technique on a wall in Zanzibar during a training session, where IRS, in combination with other malaria control efforts, has contributed to a dramatic reduction in the number of confirmed cases of malaria in young children.
Source: Karie Atkinson/USAID
IRS, a proven and highly effective malaria control measure, involves the coordinated, timely spraying of the interior walls of homes with insecticides. Mosquitoes are killed when they rest on those walls. Sprayed houses are protected for about 4 to 10 months, depending on the insecticide used and the housing construction. The World Health Organization (WHO) has approved 12 insecticides it considers effective and safe for use in IRS, including DDT. The choice of insecticide depends on its registration status in country, the housing construction (e.g., mud, brick, or wood), the duration of the malaria transmission season, and susceptibility of local Anopheles mosquitoes to the insecticide.
PMI has supported IRS activities in all 15 focus countries. PMI activities include assessing the environment to ensure safe and effective use of insecticides, educating residents about the benefits of IRS, training spray teams, procuring insecticide and equipment, and developing and evaluating spraying activities.
- IRS 2 for Malaria Control - Task Order 1 - Final Report - March 2013 [PDF, 10.8MB]
- Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project Semi-Annual Report (April-September 2012) - November 2012 [PDF, 723KB]
- Updated IRS Insecticide Use and Forecast for 2013 - August 2012 [Excel, 16KB]
- An Economic Analysis Of the Costs Of Indoor Residual Spraying in 12 PMI Countries, 2008-2010 - September 2011 [PDF, 1.1 MB]
- IRS Insecticide Procurement: Historical Trends Among PMI and USAID-Supported Countries - March 2011 [PDF, 39KB]
- PMI Best Management Practices for Indoor Residual Spraying in Vector Control Interventions - August 2010 [PDF, 2.5MB]
- Analysis of 2008 Expenditures in Five IRS TO1 Countries - March 2010 [PDF, 159KB]
- IRS Training Guide for Spray Operations - December 2009 [PDF, 1.7MB]
- WHO Manual for Indoor Residual Spraying: Application of Residual Sprays for Vector Control - March 2007 [PDF, 1MB]
- Integrated Vector Management Programs for Malaria Vector Control: Programmatic Environmental Assessment. USAID - January 2007 [PDF, 2.5MB]
- Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Program Website
- IR Mapper: Mapping Insecticide Resistance in Malaria Vectors
- Watch a video about PMI's indoor residual spraying activities in Mali (in French).
- USAID, Code of Federal Regulations, Title 22, CFR 216.3; USAID Environmental Regulations
- USAID and Indoor Residual Spraying
- CDC: Indoor Residual Spraying
- WHO: Indoor Residual Spraying
- Roll Back Malaria: IRS Procurement
- Roll Back Malaria Toolbox: Implementation of Interventions (IRS)